Just fill in the form below, click submit, you will get the price list, and we will contact you within one working day. Please also feel free to contact us via email or phone. (* is required).

disk wood chipper machine applied to wood chip production function

  • Industrial disc type wood chipper for making wood chips ...

    2019-6-14 · The disc wood chipper machine is special used for producing wood chips, which is widely used in the raw materials preparing process for the factories of flakboard, fireberboard, papermaking and wood chips making plants.

    Get Price
  • Disc Wood Chipper - World-class pellet machine,pellet ...

    2020-2-1 · Conventional industrial wood chippers used for pulp production are disc chippers that are an integrated part of the pulp mill. For wood fuel production, small and sometimes mobile disc chippers or drum chippers are used (Nati et al. 2014; Pichler et al. 2018).

    Get Price
  • New drum-chipping technology for a more uniform size ...

    2020-2-18 · The FARMI CH 260 HFEL disk chipper with grab loader feed is the ideal machine for producing energy chips. As basic material, clean wood such as trunks, trimmed logs or slabs are used. Perfect infeed is ensured by the upper large-diameter feed roller and the movable roller swing of the feed unit with two rollers.

    Get Price
  • WOOD CHIPPERS

    Alibaba.com offers 65,851 chip wood machine products. About 25% of these are forestry machinery, 4% are other woodworking machinery, and 1% are wood based panels machinery. A wide variety of chip wood machine options are available to you, There are 65,851 chip wood machine suppliers, mainly located in Asia.

    Get Price
  • China Chip Wood Machine, China Chip Wood Machine ...

    1990-5-21 · In a wood chipping machine having a rotating cutter disk, a wood chip separator comprising a plurality of fins attached to the back of the cutter disk, near the perimeter, for deflecting wood chips axially away from the cutter disk to minimize the cross over of wood chips to the infeed side of the cutter disk and to minimize the discard of wood chips with wood chaff.

    Get Price
  • Wood chipper fin chip separator - Strong, Manufacturing

    The wood chipper machine can process the wood log, wood board, and other material into 25-35mm wood chips. Feature: 1.The disc wood chips machine have compact structure, and produce wood chips with steady length. 4.The disc wood chipper machine is easy to operate, less power cost, and have larger ourput.

    Get Price
  • All-Inclusive And Enduring cheap wood chipping machine ...

    Description of wood chipper: 1.Wood shaving machines can make the logs,slab, veneer, bamboo wood,brush wood,corn stalk,cotton stalk,Phragmites, ect into wood shavings. 2.The shaving is the same as that produced from the furniture factory.

    Get Price
  • New design mobile wood chip shredder machine for wood

    2018-6-24 · chipper cutting unit where the knives chip the wood and force the chips through a discharge chute. The chipper knives generally rotate between 1000 and 2000 revolutions per minute [37]. The chipping components container is usually equipped with a removable hood to allow access to the components for maintenance and repair.

    Get Price
  • Safety Improvements on Wood Chippers Currently in Use: A ...

    A wide variety of wood chipping mill options are available to you, such as wood, metal. There are 10,005 suppliers who sells wood chipping mill on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. The top countries of suppliers are Belgium, China, and Vietnam, from which the percentage of wood chipping mill supply is 1%, 99%, and 1% respectively.

    Get Price
  • Industrial disc type wood chipper for making wood chips ...

    2011-3-24 · Drum Machine 3 Disc Processor Disc Chipper (conventional 16 mm long chip) 10 15 18 (Mean size) 98 50 (Disc chipper data from Robinson, ... Three-thread screw can chip wood at low production rates (Hakkila, 1989) BioPro Expo & Marketplace Atlanta, GA March 14-16, 2011 ... Disk Chipper Disk Chipper Drum Chipper Energy and Fuel Consumption for ...

    Get Price
  • Comparing Wood Microchips to Conventional Wood Chips ...

    2021-1-26 · Fink Machine Adds Wood Chipper for Energy Chip Production. Fink Machine has recently purchased a chipper to produce Bioenergy wood chips from wood residuals, including from land clearing, wildfire mitigation and clean urban wood waste. Check out a video of the chipper in action. Fink Machine Wood Chipper for Biomass Boilers.

    Get Price
  • Fink Machine Adds Wood Chipper for Energy Chip Production

    2011-2-1 · There are three different devices which can produce wood chips: the cone-screw wood chunker, the drum chipper and the disc chipper. We are interested in the disc chipper because it is the most widely used due to its ability to process a variety of wood feedstock, its relative simplicity, ruggedness, low cost and ease of maintenance [3] .

    Get Price
  • Experimental study about the effects of disc chipper ...

    2018-9-26 · Disk has also discharge function ... The FARMI CH 260 HFEL disk chipper with grab loader feed is the ideal machine for producing energy chips. As basic material, clean wood such ... The chipper/crane combination FARMI CH 380/381 with an output of 5,000–40,000 m3/year is a cost-effective chip production alternative for contractors.

    Get Price
  • WOOD CHIPPERS - storage.googleapis.com

    2021-5-12 · wood chipper machine is driven by the diesel engine, or gasoline engine, or the electirc motor. Its capacity is from 200kg/h to max 12t/h. It can process the waste wood or logs or branches into small chipper with thickness 2-5mm for further pelleting or briquetting or fuel.

    Get Price
  • diesel wood chipper machine - zzgofine.com

    Drum Wood Chipper is a kind of wood processing and size reduction equipment. It is widely used in wood chip production in paper mills, wood-based panel plants and biomass molding fuel plants. Available material: logs, wood branches, wood panel off cuts, veneers, straws, plant stems, palm EFB, coconuts, etc. Drum Wood Chipper LDBX-216 could be ...

    Get Price
  • Wood Chipper LDBX216 - macreat.com

    2004-2-21 · Getting started; Hard Disk Shredder; Hard Disk Shredder - Manufacturers, Suppliers, Factory from China. Adhering for the theory of 'quality, services, performance and growth', we have received trusts and praises from domestic and worldwide shopper for Hard Disk Shredder, Wood Splitter For Excavator, Tree Branch Machine, Crusher For Biomass Power Plants,spare parts of wood …

    Get Price
  • Disc Wood Chipper - World-class pellet machine,pellet ...

    2019-6-14 · The disc wood chipper machine is special used for producing wood chips, which is widely used in the raw materials preparing process for the factories of flakboard, fireberboard, papermaking and wood chips making plants. ... 3.Thickness cutter disk, stable function. ... wood touch the revolving cutter.the wood chip will come out of machine under ...

    Get Price
  • Disc chipper (drop fed) | Bruks Siwertell

    2018-9-26 · Disk has also discharge function ... The FARMI CH 260 HFEL disk chipper with grab loader feed is the ideal machine for producing energy chips. As basic material, clean wood such ... The chipper/crane combination FARMI CH 380/381 with an output of 5,000–40,000 m3/year is a cost-effective chip production alternative for contractors.

    Get Price
  • WOOD CHIPPERS - storage.googleapis.com

    2020-2-18 · Disk has also discharge function ... The FARMI CH 260 HFEL disk chipper with grab loader feed is the ideal machine for producing energy chips. As basic material, clean wood such ... The chipper/crane combination FARMI CH 380/381 with an output of 5,000Ð40,000 m3/year is a cost-e!ective chip production alternative for contractors.

    Get Price
  • WOOD CHIPPERS

    2011-2-1 · There are three different devices which can produce wood chips: the cone-screw wood chunker, the drum chipper and the disc chipper. We are interested in the disc chipper because it is the most widely used due to its ability to process a variety of wood feedstock, its relative simplicity, ruggedness, low cost and ease of maintenance [3] .

    Get Price
  • Experimental study about the effects of disc chipper ...

    Disc Chipper Knife/Anvil Systems. Key Knife’s disc chipper knife systems are providing pulp mills, chip mills, sawmills, and in-woods chipping operations around the world with cost effective solutions that improve chip quality, increase production capabilities, and reduce operating costs. Key Knife manufactures indexible knife chipping ...

    Get Price
  • Disc Chipper Knife/Anvil Systems

    Buy New design mobile wood chip shredder machine for wood chipper from Shandong Sino Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd.,Wood Chipper Machine Distributor online Service suppliers. Shandong Sino Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd. ... disk cutting and hammer crushing to sawdust, the granularity size can be adjusted by changing the sieve. ...

    Get Price
  • New design mobile wood chip shredder machine for wood

    2016-7-29 · Wood chipping machine is specially designed for making wood chips, wood branch, small diameter wood, bamboo wood, slab, cotton stalk and other which belongs. to the wood processing series. the chip length can be adjusted freely within the limits prescribed, it is the advanced wood chipper.The size of the wood chips is 1-3 cm.

    Get Price
  • Wood Chipper 101: Everything You Need To Know About

    2018-6-24 · chipper cutting unit where the knives chip the wood and force the chips through a discharge chute. The chipper knives generally rotate between 1000 and 2000 revolutions per minute [37]. The chipping components container is usually equipped with a removable hood to allow access to the components for maintenance and repair.

    Get Price
  • Fink Machine Adds Wood Chipper for Energy Chip Production

    2021-1-26 · Fink Machine Adds Wood Chipper for Energy Chip Production. Fink Machine has recently purchased a chipper to produce Bioenergy wood chips from wood residuals, including from land clearing, wildfire mitigation and clean urban wood waste. Check out a video of the chipper in action. Fink Machine Wood Chipper for Biomass Boilers.

    Get Price
  • Disc Wood Chipper - World-class pellet machine,pellet ...

    2019-6-14 · The disc wood chipper machine is special used for producing wood chips, which is widely used in the raw materials preparing process for the factories of flakboard, fireberboard, papermaking and wood chips making plants. ... 3.Thickness cutter disk, stable function. ... wood touch the revolving cutter.the wood chip will come out of machine under ...

    Get Price
  • Drum Wood Chippers | Large Wood Chipper Shredder

    2021-6-22 · Drum wood chipper is the special equipment for the production of high-quality wood chips. This wood chipper shredder is popular in the market because of its large output and high efficiency. This large wood chipper can be continuously produced in the factory or raw material production area, with a high degree of automation and strong adaptability.

    Get Price
  • FEED AND BIOFUEL BIOMASS PELLETING TECHNOLOGIES

    Raw material intake: Wood chips Wood chips supplied in sizes of 50+ mm must be reduced in a chipper and ham-mer mill before entering the drying pro-cess. Use of the 43“ hammer mill in the pre-grinding stage boosts particle size distribution using an energy-efficient ro-tor design and comes with replaceable wear liners for the grinding chamber.

    Get Price
  • How Wood Chippers Work - Thomasnet

    2021-6-28 · A wood chipper (or tree shredder) is frequently used in industrial lumber applications to reduce wood into chips or sawdust, as part of wood recycling or as part of a manufacturing process. Wood chippers are also used by those in the agricultural industry during property and land maintenance, or to aid in clean up after a storm or meteorological event.

    Get Price
  • The Pulp and Paper Making Processes - Princeton

    2007-3-19 · may be applied. The debarked wood bolts are then chipped in a chipper if the pulping process calls for chemical digestion or are fed into a grinder in the case of some mechanical pulps. Chips are screened for size, cleaned, and temporarily stored for further processing. Fiber Separation The fiber separation stage is the point at which the

    Get Price
  • ProductivityandCostofIntegratedHarvestingof ...

    2011-9-29 · (i.e., energy wood chips) in stand conversion clearcut operations. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees were processed into sawlogs while whole trees of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), and sub-merchantable materials (small-diameter trees, tops and limbs) were fed directly into a chipper to produce biomass for energy production.

    Get Price
  • Blade mounting for a chipper blade - Inter-Wood

    1993-4-14 · The invention relates to a blade mounting for the cutting tool of a fixed block or blade-disk chipper of a wood-chipping machine. In the production of chips having chip thicknesses of over 0.7 mm, as are required for certain special boards, high cutting and feed forces are generated which, in the unavoidable chipping of end-grained wood ...

    Get Price
  • US5000390A - Apparatus and method for sizing wood

    A wood chip sizing apparatus, based on the thickness dimension, which includes a gyratory screen system (16) comprising three separate screens (18, 22, 26) which produces a total of four fractions, one fraction (20) comprising substantially all overthick chips, another fraction (24) comprising both overthick chips and accepts, another fraction (28) comprising substantially all accepts, and ...

    Get Price
  • ME Storage and Automation - Applied Energistics

    2013-8-25 · The ME Chest shows you the contents of the Cell as soon as its placed inside, and you can add and remove items from it as if it were a Chest, with the exception that the items are actually stored in the Storage cells, and not the ME Chest itself.. While the ME Chest is a great way to get introduced to the concept of ME, to really take advantage you need to set up an ME Network.

    Get Price
  • Fink Machine Adds Wood Chipper for Energy Chip Production

    2021-1-26 · Fink Machine Adds Wood Chipper for Energy Chip Production. Fink Machine has recently purchased a chipper to produce Bioenergy wood chips from wood residuals, including from land clearing, wildfire mitigation and clean urban wood waste. Check out a video of the chipper in action. Fink Machine Wood Chipper for Biomass Boilers.

    Get Price
  • Comparing Wood Microchips to Conventional Wood Chips ...

    2011-3-24 · Drum Machine 3 Disc Processor Disc Chipper (conventional 16 mm long chip) 10 15 18 (Mean size) 98 50 (Disc chipper data from Robinson, ... Three-thread screw can chip wood at low production rates (Hakkila, 1989) BioPro Expo & Marketplace Atlanta, GA March 14-16, 2011 ... Disk Chipper Disk Chipper Drum Chipper Energy and Fuel Consumption for ...

    Get Price
  • Drum wood chipper for sale - Charcoal Machine - S

    We are a industrial wood chipper supplier from China, we have 25 years history of supplying wood chipper machine.Our wood chippers are drum type wood chippers and commercial wood chippers, it could also be called brush chipper,tree chipper, industrial wood shredder and branch chipper.Drum type wood chipper is more durable and powerful than disk type wood chipper, it is industrial wood chipper.

    Get Price
  • Wood Chipper – —Industrial Wood Chipper Manufacturer

    2015-12-1 · In contrast, chippers are exclusively applied to clean wood and offer a finer and better product . Chippers used for woodchip production for energy use can be divided by the function of their comminution devices, i.e., discs and drums . All chippers offer high product quality, but disc chippers are more energy efficient than drum chippers.

    Get Price
  • How to use a wood chipper - Deere

    Wood Chipper, Wood Chips, Dwc-40 manufacturer supplier in China, offering Wood Chipper (DWC-40), 2 Wheel Mini/Small/Micro Garden Type Agricultural Farm 10HP High Clutch Power Tiller Walking Wheel Tractor (SH101), Small/Mini/Micro Garden Type 2 Wheel Drive Agricultural Farm 4 Wheel Mini Tractor and so on.

    Get Price
  • Productivity and woodchip quality of different chippers ...

    Getting started; Diesel Wood Chipper Shredder; Diesel Wood Chipper Shredder - China Factory, Suppliers, Manufacturers. To create much more price for clients is our company philosophy; purchaser growing is our working chase for Diesel Wood Chipper Shredder, Wood Pellet Machine, Disc Wood Chipper, Branch Stump Tree Wood Crushing Machine,Wood Chip Crusher.

    Get Price
  • China Wood Chipper (DWC-40) - China Wood Chipper,

    Wood Pellet Line, Biomass Pellet Machine, Pellet Production Line manufacturer supplier in China, offering Yulong Xgj560 1.5-2ton/H Biomass Eucalyptus Wood Chips Pellet Mill, Vertical Ring Die Biomass Wood Sawdust Pellet Mill, Wood Shavings Pellet Machine Pine Sawdust Pellet Machine Rice Husk Pellet Machine and so on.

    Get Price
  • China Diesel Wood Chipper Shredder Factory and ...

    2021-4-1 · Poplar wood chip storage: effect of particle size and breathable covering on drying dynamics and biofuel quality Biomass Bioenergy , 81 ( 2015 ) , pp. 282 - 287 , 10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.07.001 Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus Google Scholar

    Get Price
  • Horizontally fed HHQ-Chipper - ANDRITZ

    Horizontal infeed also minimizes log impacts, and therefore log breakage, prior to the chipper. The large spout accommodates infeed of crooked wood as well. The chips are side-discharged to a screw hopper placed above floor level. The gentle discharge reduces chip damage as well as the amount of fines and pins produced.

    Get Price
  • Influence of chipping system on chipper performance and ...

    A new chipper was designed for the harvest of a wide range of pruning. • The study compared two blade types, helicoidal or hoe's shaped, on peach pruning. • The machine showed lower efficiency with hoe shaped knives. • The helicoidal blade allowed to obtain the best particle size distribution.

    Get Price
  • Debarker discharge and chipper infeed systems

    Benefits of ANDRITZ debarker discharge and chipper infeed systems. Continuous control of wood quality fed into chipper. Stone separation protects chipper knives. Bark separation provides higher chip and pulp quality. Separate chipping of short ends for high capacity in the main chipping line. Washing of the logs reduces chipper component wear.

    Get Price
  • Industrial Wood Chippers | Mobile and Stationary | CBI

    Schind VWC 650 Vertical Wood Chipper. This is a small powerful shredder, running on Lifan gasoline engine. It can chip branches up to 76 mm diameter through the side in feed opening and can shred multiple branches, leaves, and other green bio wastes through the top opening. Good for back yard, orchards, subdivisions, and barangays.

    Get Price
  • SCHIND WOOD CHIPPERS AND BIO SHREDDERS – Schind

    2021-2-22 · 1- Mobile Integrated Wood Crusher: Also called Mobile Wood Chipper is the first choice for the raw materials of the pre-furnace silo of the biomass power plant at home and abroad. Its compact and reasonable structure, simple operation, high production capacity, wide adaptability of raw materials, high quality of crushing granularity and high safety.

    Get Price
  • Mobile Wood Crusher For Sale,Large Drum Wood Chipper ...

    Raw material intake: Wood chips Wood chips supplied in sizes of 50+ mm must be reduced in a chipper and ham-mer mill before entering the drying pro-cess. Use of the 43“ hammer mill in the pre-grinding stage boosts particle size distribution using an energy-efficient ro-tor design and comes with replaceable wear liners for the grinding chamber.

    Get Price
  • FEED AND BIOFUEL BIOMASS PELLETING TECHNOLOGIES

    Dust Collectors View All. Keep your air safe and clean with a quiet, efficient cyclone dust collector or an affordable bag-style machine. Our line ranges from small portable units to a 10 hp industrial dust collector. Read more about Dust Collectors.

    Get Price
  • Wood Working Machinery | Baileigh Industrial

    The wood chipper 12 includes an infeed chute assembly 14 having an inlet 16 to allow wood material to enter the wood chipper 12. The wood chipper 12 also includes the multiple wheel feed wheel assembly 10 disposed between and adjacent to the infeed chute assembly 14 and a cutting assembly 18 for rotation about a horizontal axis adjacent to the ...

    Get Price
  • diesel wood chipper machine - zzgofine.com

    2021-5-12 · wood chipper machine is driven by the diesel engine, or gasoline engine, or the electirc motor. Its capacity is from 200kg/h to max 12t/h. It can process the waste wood or logs or branches into small chipper with thickness 2-5mm for further pelleting or briquetting or fuel.

    Get Price
  • LR630 - The compact shredder for wood chip production ...

    A new chipper was designed for the harvest of a wide range of pruning. • The study compared two blade types, helicoidal or hoe's shaped, on peach pruning. • The machine showed lower efficiency with hoe shaped knives. • The helicoidal blade allowed to obtain the best particle size distribution.

    Get Price
  • Influence of chipping system on chipper performance and ...

    2012-6-10 · rpm. Chippers can be in size range from whole log chipper of 350cm(140in) to 370cm(150in) in diameter with 1864.25kW (2500hp) with direct coupled synchronous motors to 120cm(48in) belt driven with 112 to 149kW (150 to 200 hp) induction motors. The last one used for chipping waste wood in sawmills. Figure 1 shows a disk chipper. 2

    Get Price
  • Cost and Performance of Woody Biomass Size Reduction for ...

    Forestry machines | Wood chipper shredder. Wood chipper shredder. Self propelled wood chipper: XYLOCHIP 100DA. These wood chippers have a huge shredding capacity. Ideal for landscape gardeners, rental... See this product. Track wood chipper: XYLOCHIP 100C. The new XYLOCHIP 100 C track chipper with heat engine, can adjust to all grounds or...

    Get Price
  • Wood chipper shredder - Forestry machines - Rabaud

    2015-12-1 · In contrast, chippers are exclusively applied to clean wood and offer a finer and better product . Chippers used for woodchip production for energy use can be divided by the function of their comminution devices, i.e., discs and drums . All chippers offer high product quality, but disc chippers are more energy efficient than drum chippers.

    Get Price
  • Productivity and woodchip quality of different chippers ...

    Drum Wood Chipper is a kind of wood processing and size reduction equipment. It is widely used in wood chip production in paper mills, wood-based panel plants and biomass molding fuel plants. Available material: logs, wood branches, wood panel off cuts, veneers, straws, plant stems, palm EFB, coconuts, etc. Drum Wood Chipper LDBX-218 could be ...

    Get Price
  • Wood Chipper LDBX218 - macreat.com

    We have been operating on the market of precision metal machining and machine production since 1998. Many years of experience have facilitated the proper identification of the market and the needs of customers in the field of wood processing. More. High …

    Get Price
  • Skid Steer Wood Chipper-Skid Steer Wood Chipper

    Best selling wood chipper machine in 2020:Adopt 380V, 50Hz, 200kW motor,the feeding length of chain plate is 5.00 M, the rotor length is 1.25 M,equipped with 0.8 × 10m discharge conveyor belt,the weight of the machine itself is 13 tons,chip size: 5-10cm (chip size can be customized according to customer needs), output per hour: 10-20 tons;

    Get Price
  • Accessory equipment - Pellet mill ,Pellet machine, Pellet ...

    2015-11-19 · Bamboo wood chipper machine is a special equipment for production of wood, widely used in particleboard, fiberboard and paper production in the preparation section and wood chip production. Small bamboo wood drum-style chipper is a beast equipment for factory laboratory preparation of raw materials.

    Get Price
  • Bamboo wood chipper | 3D CAD Model Library | GrabCAD

    2013-5-5 · Wood chippers & mulchers. Top Brands, Sharp Prices! Free Shipping NZ Wide. Landworks LCE06 Chipper Shredder, 3.0' Capacity, Briggs & Stratton XR950 Engine! Hanmey 4' PTO Wood Chipper- Free Shipping ! Landworks LCE06 Chipper Shredder, 3.0' Capacity, Briggs & Stratton XR950 Engine! Landmax EFGC175 HEAVY DUTY FLAIL MOWER/MULCHER...

    Get Price
  • Wood chippers & mulchers | Forestry | Trade Me

    2021-3-19 · One of our favorite wood chipper shredders is this 15 amp electric chipper shredder from Sun Joe. Sun Joe 15 Amp Wood Chipper & Shredder can effectively shred branches up to 1.5 inches in diameter and incorporates a safety hopper with locking knob to ensure your safety during operation and cleaning. The compact design and 6-inch wheels allow this machine to move …

    Get Price
  • 14 Best Wood Chippers In 2021 [Buying Guide] - Unclutterer

    2012-3-22 · Machine rates, production rates, and production costs for each stage of operation, and the operation as a whole, are summarized in Table 3. The total hourly system cost of running all the machines used in the integrated harvesting operation was 1,936.76/PMH, which included ownership, operating, and labor costs.

    Get Price
  • Productivity and Cost of Integrated Harvesting of Wood ...

    2021-1-26 · Fink Machine District Heating System Energy Centre. Fink Machine has owned and operated a district heating system since 2012. We have 11 clients connected and are looking to add more in 2020. We have over 1.6 km of trenches. Heat for the system is generated by a 540 kW Viessmann Vitoflex 300-RF wood chip boiler.

    Get Price
  • Home - Fink Machine Canada's Leading Biomass Boiler

    1996-6-1 · @article{osti_366453, title = {Conventions for quantum pseudocode}, author = {Knill, E}, abstractNote = {A few conventions for thinking about and writing quantum pseudocode are proposed. The conventions can be used for presenting any quantum algorithm down to the lowest level and are consistent with a quantum random access machine (QRAM) model for quantum …

    Get Price
  • Conventions for quantum pseudocode (Technical Report ...

    Valmet’s calendering technology provides innovative solutions for all paper and board grades. The type of calendering technology applied is determined by machine process conditions like speed and web width as well as the paper or board quality desired. Every investment you make has to pay itself back in a reasonable time so it is essential to ...

    Get Price
  • Innovative calendering solutions for all paper and board ...

    2017-5-25 · Machine rates use an average decimal percentage of depreciation as an estimator. Entering 0.9, for example, means that R&M will cost 90% of the annual depreciation charge. Over the life of the machine, the R&M cost would be about 75% of the purchase price of the machine. road class--general description of road surfacing, width, alignment, traffic

    Get Price