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modelling of sugar drying in a countercurrent in south africa

  • Modelling of sugar drying in a countercurrent

    1999-8-1 · For the batch experiments, both the influences of air humidity and air temperature were separately investigated. The effect of air humidity is clearly shown on Fig. 3: up to 70% of air humidity, no significant differences can be observed. At a 83% R.H., after a short period of drying (2–3 min) due to the high initial temperature of moist sugar (about 60°C) , a continuous rehydration of ...

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  • Modelling of sugar drying in a countercurrent

    From the shape of stationary profiles of temperatures and moisture for the gas and solid phases, two distinct zones clearly appears in a counter-current cascading rotary dryer of sugar; a first zone in which the drying takes place, a second zone in which the dried sugar is …

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  • DeepDyve - Unlimited Access to Peer-Reviewed Journals

    DeepDyve is the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

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  • MATLAB modelling of a sugar mill: model development

    Sugar drying. The proposed model of sugar drying involves a rotary drum dryer and an air heater. A fictitious crystallisation unit is used to account for the effect of sugar crystallisation from the residual syrup accompanying sugar crystals when exposed to high drying temperatures. Utilities

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  • Modeling and Simulation of a Co-Current Rotary

    A model which joins the overall design algorithm of a rotary dryer with the drying kinetics equations derived from experimental data and with a finite segment algorithm is implemented in order to verify the dryer dimensions obtained from a basic sizing procedure. Total energy and mass balances and well-known correlations for the overall heat transfer coefficient are employed to develop it.

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  • Solar Process Heat for South African Sugar Mills

    2016-12-14 · In the final drying process, the surface moisture content of the raw sugar is reduced by evaporation. For this, usually rotary cascade drums with counter flow hot air are used. After the sugar is dried, it is cooled with ambient air. Raw sugar can be sold directly, or be further refined at a refinery. 2.2 Current energy supply of SA sugar mills

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  • Solar Live Steam Generation and Solar Bagasse Drying for ...

    2018-5-15 · for implementation in South African sugar mills as a result of work within the Sugarcane Technology Enabling Programme for Bio-Energy. The two integration options are the drying of bagasse using solar heated air and the generation of live steam using concentrating solar thermal collectors. This study further develops

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  • Drytech International (Pty) Ltd - EngNet South Africa

    Rotary Dryers. Large throughputs and high evaporative loads. Rotary cascade dryers have the feed materials pass through a rotating cylinder together with a stream of hot gas. Internal lifters or flights elevate the feed and drop it in a curtain from the top to the …

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  • SMRI Advanced Course in Sugarcane processing

    Narain has worked as a sugar Technologist and Chemical Engineer in the sugar Industry at various sugar mills for 42 years and has extensive experience in Laboratory, rawhouse and refinery operations. By virtue of the extensive experience he has specialized on evaporator cleaning , Pan boiling ,crystallization and centrifugal operation.

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  • The process design of gold leaching and carbon-in-pulp ...

    2009-8-27 · transferred countercurrent to the main pulp flow. Transfer is normally accomplished by pumping pulp and the associated carbon in a countercurrent direction. Due to the abrasive nature of the pulp a certain amount of degradation of carbon takes place within the adsorption section. Carbon fines that are produced by abrasion pass through the inter-stage

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  • Mathematical modelling and simulation for the drying ...

    2003-9-1 · Mathematical modelling and simulation for the drying process of vegetable wholesale by-products in a rotary dryer. ... The development and validation of a system model for a countercurrent cascading rotary dryer. Cao. ... Simulation of a rotary dryer for sugar crystalline. Douglas. Drying Technology, (1) 1993 Studies in rotary drying. Part I ...

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  • Modeling and Simulation of a Co-Current Rotary

    A model which joins the overall design algorithm of a rotary dryer with the drying kinetics equations derived from experimental data and with a finite segment algorithm is implemented in order to verify the dryer dimensions obtained from a basic sizing procedure. Total energy and mass balances and well-known correlations for the overall heat transfer coefficient are employed to develop it.

    Get Price
  • DRYING AND COOLING IN SUGAR PROCESSING - Solex

    2016-6-22 · During sugar processing, the cooling and drying of crystalized sugar is the most important step after the purification process to guarantee a high quality of finished product. Sugar drying removes excess moisture from the sugar using heat, while cooling the sugar brings it to an ideal temperature for storage and transport. Without

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  • SMRI Advanced Course in Sugarcane processing

    Sugar Drying and Conditioning Part 1. Sugar Drying and Conditioning Part 2. ... Dr Peter Rein spent 31 years working for Tongaat Hulett Sugar in South Africa, where he became Technical Director and Head of the Technical Management Department. ... His PhD was related to the mathemetical modelling of the dynamic and vibration interactions between ...

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  • Solar Process Heat for South African Sugar Mills

    2016-12-14 · export. The highest IRR of 9.1 % is expected for sugar drying during the crushing season. Keywords: solar process heat, energy efficiency, sugar production, electricity export, feasibility study 1. Introduction South Africa (SA) produces about two million tons of raw and refined sugar per year as well as a wide range of sugar by-products.

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  • Modelling Impacts of Dryland Sugarcane on Streamflows

    2018-3-12 · 1 Modelling Impacts of Dryland Sugarcane on Streamflows in a Water Stressed Catchment in KwaZulu-Natal C.E Talanda1, M. Horan2, R. Schulze2, N Lecler3, T. Nditwani4 1WRP Consulting Engineers, Pretoria, South Africa 2 University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 3 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe, South Africa and Honorary Associate …

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  • Mathematical modelling and simulation for the drying ...

    DOI: 10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00451-X Corpus ID: 109914917. Mathematical modelling and simulation for the drying process of vegetable wholesale by-products in a rotary dryer @article{Iguaz2003MathematicalMA, title={Mathematical modelling and simulation for the drying process of vegetable wholesale by-products in a rotary dryer}, author={A. Iguaz and A. Esnoz and G. Martinez …

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  • Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Marinated

    2021-2-10 · Biltong is a dried meat product that is widely consumed in South Africa. The marinated meat is traditionally dried under ambient winter conditions while commercial biltong producers use hot air driers. Hot air drying is time-consuming and energy-intensive. A combined infrared and hot air drying (IRHAD) is an alternative method of drying meat during biltong processing.

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  • Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying of Beef Biltong

    2020-12-17 · This study was conducted to evaluate the drying characteristics and establish the best thin-layer drying model of marinated beef under hot air drying. The drying experiments were conducted in a cabinet dryer at drying air temperatures of 30, 35, and 40 °C, and drying air velocity of 1.5 and 2.5 m s−1. The sample temperature and mass were measured throughout the duration of drying.

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  • A review of renewable energy development in Africa:

    2018-1-1 · In his review of renewable energy for sustainable development in Africa, I.M. Bugaje considered the extent to which policies on solar, wind, biomass and biogas are meeting up top challenges of sustainable development in four countries namely South Africa, Nigeria, Mali and Egypt .In a paper titled “the economics of renewable energy expansion in rural sub-Saharan Africa”, Uwe Deichman …

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  • Modelling Impacts of Dryland Sugarcane on Streamflows

    2018-3-12 · 1 Modelling Impacts of Dryland Sugarcane on Streamflows in a Water Stressed Catchment in KwaZulu-Natal C.E Talanda1, M. Horan2, R. Schulze2, N Lecler3, T. Nditwani4 1WRP Consulting Engineers, Pretoria, South Africa 2 University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 3 South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe, South Africa and Honorary Associate …

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  • Solar Process Heat for South African Sugar Mills

    2016-12-14 · export. The highest IRR of 9.1 % is expected for sugar drying during the crushing season. Keywords: solar process heat, energy efficiency, sugar production, electricity export, feasibility study 1. Introduction South Africa (SA) produces about two million tons of raw and refined sugar per year as well as a wide range of sugar by-products.

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  • Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Rapeseed

    Rotary Dryers are designed for numerous processing applications and are generally considered the workhorse for mineral concentrate drying. Rotary Dryers are highly robust with a low maintenance demand and the ability to process a broad range of materials. Capacity ranging from 100 kg/hr to in excess of 500 tph.

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  • Rotary Dryers – DryTech International

    2021-2-10 · Research Article Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Marinated Beef during Infrared-Assisted Hot Air Processing of Biltong Francis C. Muga ,1 Moses O. Marenya ,2 and Tilahun S. Workneh 1 1Department of Bioresources Engineering, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

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  • Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Marinated

    2021-2-10 · Biltong is a dried meat product that is widely consumed in South Africa. The marinated meat is traditionally dried under ambient winter conditions while commercial biltong producers use hot air driers. Hot air drying is time-consuming and energy-intensive. A combined infrared and hot air drying (IRHAD) is an alternative method of drying meat during biltong processing.

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  • Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Marinated

    2020-5-17 · v ABSTRACT This dissertation describes a steady-state mass and energy balance model of a raw sugar mill which has been developed using the Aspen Plus® software. The Aspen Plus® TMmodel was designed to replicate an existing MATLAB model of a ‘generic’ South African sugar mill with the aim of facilitating future expansion to different products

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  • Development and Verification of an Aspen Plus Model of

    2020-1-13 · Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is widely grown in arid climate areas covering Mediterranean region, South Africa, southern Asia, USA and Parts of Latin America (Mphahlele et al. 2016).Owing to its richness in bioactive compounds such as carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, organic acids, and polyphenols, pomegranate is a functional food of great interest (Bchir et al. 2010; Singh et …

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  • Benoit Lacave - University of KwaZulu-Natal

    2016-5-6 · MODELLING AND CONTROL OF A CO-CURRENT SUGAR DRYER By ... Durban November 200 1 . ii A rnes parents, rna soeur . ABSTRACT The drying of sugar is the last step in the recovery of solid sugar from sugar-cane. To ensure that the sugar can be transported and stored, the final moisture content leaving the sugar mill ... my stay in South Africa.

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  • v118n10a7 FACTSAGE™ thermo-equilibrium simulations

    2019-1-17 · University, South Africa.. ... modelling software was developed mainly for complex ... Drying and devolatilization zone 2. Gasification zone 3. Combustion and ash zone. Van Dyk and Waanders (2008) subsequently developed a modified model that consisted of a two-zone simulation: 1. Drying, devolatilization, and gasification zone

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  • Rotary Dryers – DryTech International

    Rotary Dryers are designed for numerous processing applications and are generally considered the workhorse for mineral concentrate drying. Rotary Dryers are highly robust with a low maintenance demand and the ability to process a broad range of materials. Capacity ranging from 100 kg/hr to in excess of 500 tph.

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  • Osmotic dehydration of aloe vera cubes and selection of ...

    2019-2-22 · South Africa 7602 Osmotic dehydration of aloe vera cubes and selection of suitable drying model Abstract In the present study, the effect of pretreatments (i.e. osmotic dehydration in 30, 40 and 50ºBrix sugar solution at 30ºC syrup temperature) and drying air temperature (50, 60, 70 and 80ºC)

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  • Production of activated carbon from South African ...

    Excellent activated carbon was produced from sugarcane bagasse by a two-stage physical process involving pyrolysis and gasification with steam. The best operating conditions were pyrolysis at 700°C for 1 hr and activation at 850°C for 1hr, a heating rate of 10°C/min and …

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  • Congress Proceedings - South African Sugar

    Congress Proceedings. In its quest to promote the exchange of scientific knowledge related to sugarcane agriculture and sugar milling practice, SASTA grants free access to the proceedings of its annual congresses. Please note that SASTA holds the copyright to these publications.

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  • Simulation of Sugarcane Bagasse Gasification using

    2015-3-4 · modelling the fluidised gasification of sugarcane bagasse. The aspen plus is as software package that gives a complete integrated solution to chemical process and reactors [4]. The software was selected because it has the capability to define non-conventional fuels in terms of their ultimate and

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  • ISSUES PERTAINING TO CANE SUPPLY RELIABILITY AND ...

    Over the past decade the South African sugar industry has been under pressure to increase efficiency and hence profit margins, mainly as a result of the deregulation of the agriculture and food sector (Gaucher et al., 2003). Added to this is the fact that sugar supply areas in South Africa have become less reactive to changes due to the silo

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  • Outcomes - Wits University

    2021-6-24 · TG Myers and JPF Charpin. 'Modelling the temperature, maturity and moisture content in a drying concrete block.' Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies Journal, 1 (2008), 24-48; N Fowkes, J A T de Freitas and T R Stacey. 'Crack repair using an elastic filler'. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 56 (2008), 2749 - 2758. DP Mason and H ...

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  • Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Marinated

    2021-2-10 · Biltong is a dried meat product that is widely consumed in South Africa. The marinated meat is traditionally dried under ambient winter conditions while commercial biltong producers use hot air driers. Hot air drying is time-consuming and energy-intensive. A combined infrared and hot air drying (IRHAD) is an alternative method of drying meat during biltong processing.

    Get Price
  • Development and Verification of an Aspen Plus Model of

    2020-4-23 · v ABSTRACT This dissertation describes a steady-state mass and energy balance model of a raw sugar mill which has been developed using the Aspen Plus® software. The Aspen Plus® TMmodel was designed to replicate an existing MATLAB model of a ‘generic’ South African sugar mill with the aim of facilitating future expansion to different products

    Get Price
  • Doctoral Degrees (Process Engineering)

    Modelling and sustainability analysis of biorefineries using sugarcane lignocellulose to produce polyethylene, sorbitol, glucaric acid and levulinic acid at existing South African sugar mills Kapanji, Kutemba Kaina ( Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University , 2021-03 )

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  • Agricultural Engineering - University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Modelling of micro-environment inside evaporatively and coolbot cooled stores using computational fluid dynamics models and changes in quality of stored tomatoes. The postharvest loss of fresh produce is a global problem, with the tomato fruit being subjected to a 30-50% loss of total production after harvest.

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  • (PDF) A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO SUGAR

    A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO SUGAR FACTORY DESIGN SCHORN P M1, PEACOCK S D1, COX M G S1 and LOVE D J2 1 Tongaat-Hulett Sugar Ltd, Private Bag 3, Glenashley, 4022, South Africa. [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] 2 David Love Process Engineering CC, 45 Kelvin Place, Durban, 4051, South Africa. dave.love ...

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  • Post-Graduate Research Opportunities

    2013-9-12 · research we use a modular modelling platform with stochastic simulation capabilities. The research project will apply the model at all the sugar mills in South Africa and two mills in other countries in southern Africa. This project is seeking high calibre MSc and PhD students

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  • MScEng - University of KwaZulu-Natal

    A Gate-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of a Pulp and Paper Mill in South Africa. 6.37 KB. 22 MB. Mbolekwa Z. 2007. Removal of Reactive Dyes from Dye Liquor Using Activated Carbon for the Reuse of Water, Salt and Energy. 18 KB. 819 KB. Gounder P. 2006. Modelling Of the Effects of Textile Industry Wastewaters on the Performance of a Municipal ...

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  • Research Opportunities – The Hans Merensky Chair in ...

    Research Opportunities. A number of postdoctoral fellowships and several post-graduate research projects, at M.Sc. and Ph.D. level, will be funded by the Hans Merensky Foundation as part of this Chair.. Please see the sections below, describing different areas of research that we are pursuing, and see here for details on how to apply to join us.. Research activities in EucXylo revolve around ...

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  • (PDF) Different Drying Methods: Their Applications

    Raquel et al. (2011) studied different methods of drying of pear namely solar stove, a solar dryer and a tunnel dryer, and reported that the drying time for solar and solar dryer showed a reduction of more than 40 per cent while in the drying tunnel this reduction increased to more than 60 per cent as compared with traditional open-air sun drying.

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  • Global Warming and Agriculture - IMF

    2008-3-31 · Africa –28 –17 Asia –19 –7 Middle East and North Africa –21 –9 Latin America –24 –13 Source: Cline (2007). 1Temperature is average daily in ºC. 2Precipitation is measured in millimeters per day. 3Assumes no benefit to crop yields from increased …

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  • v118n10a7 FACTSAGE™ thermo-equilibrium simulations

    2019-1-17 · University, South Africa.. ... modelling software was developed mainly for complex ... Drying and devolatilization zone 2. Gasification zone 3. Combustion and ash zone. Van Dyk and Waanders (2008) subsequently developed a modified model that consisted of a two-zone simulation: 1. Drying, devolatilization, and gasification zone

    Get Price
  • Osmotic dehydration of aloe vera cubes and selection of ...

    2019-2-22 · South Africa 7602 Osmotic dehydration of aloe vera cubes and selection of suitable drying model Abstract In the present study, the effect of pretreatments (i.e. osmotic dehydration in 30, 40 and 50ºBrix sugar solution at 30ºC syrup temperature) and drying air temperature (50, 60, 70 and 80ºC)

    Get Price
  • Fish-Feed Drying Equipment - CFW Environmental

    Fish-Feed Drying Equipment. CFW manufactures drying equipment for fish feed extrusion processes. A variety of batch and continuous convection drying equipment can be supplied to meet stringent requirements. Fish feed forms a large part of the production cost in aquaculture – up to 70%. The pursuit of sustainable and economic aquaculture has ...

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  • models of boilers of sugar industry

    models of boilers of sugar industry - flashpoints.au the capacity is 21tons steam boiler in sugar industry. Sugar Industry is the only industry which utilizes all its waste and is an juice to make sugar ), was burnt as fuel in the boilers to generate steam and power just capacity Sugar Mills, conforming to Indian as well as international standards.

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  • INDIVIDUAL PUBLICATIONS FOR MR CJ BROUCKAERT

    2017-3-28 · 1 INDIVIDUAL PUBLICATIONS FOR MR CJ BROUCKAERT FOR PERIOD 2001 TO 2005 Conference Proceedings : 1. BROUCKAERT, C.J., HANEKOM, D.*, WOODHOUSE, C.* and BUCKLEY, C.A., `Optimal Location of a Membrane Plant in a Power Station', Eskom International Conference on Power Plant Chemistry and

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  • Outcomes - Wits University

    2021-6-24 · TG Myers and JPF Charpin. 'Modelling the temperature, maturity and moisture content in a drying concrete block.' Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies Journal, 1 (2008), 24-48; N Fowkes, J A T de Freitas and T R Stacey. 'Crack repair using an elastic filler'. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 56 (2008), 2749 - 2758. DP Mason and H ...

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  • Ability of different matrices to transmit African swine ...

    2021-4-27 · Peas (humidity 11.5–14.2%) contaminated with ASFV‐positive blood (10 6 HAD 50 /mL) and subjected to 2 h of drying (incubation at room temperature) followed by incubation at temperatures between 40 and 75°C for 1 h were ASFV‐negative by HAT after drying and after any of the eight drying and heat treatments tested (Fischer et al., 2020 ...

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  • Detecting the Early Stage of Phaeosphaeria Leaf Spot ...

    2016-8-20 · human diets in sub-Saharan Africa and is a staple diet for majority of the African population (Kagoda et al. 2010). In some sub-Saharan African countries, maize is considered a major feed for livestock [1, 2]. In South Africa, maize is the second most popular crop after sugar cane and accounts for over 50% production within the Southern African ...

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  • Agricultural diversification as an important strategy

    2018-3-31 · In contrast, cropping areas in East Africa south of Ethiopia, South Africa, the Sahel, and the Mediterranean coast of Morocco and Algeria are characterized by low farming diversity (Figure 4b). In these areas, already today rainfall limits agriculture and diversification potentials are low.

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  • 8th RENEWABLE ENERGY POSTGRADUATE SYMPOSIUM

    renewable energy micro-grids in South Africa and neighbouring countries M Mabaso . 4 15h50 - 16h10 A radio frequency identification (RFID) energy ... 12h15 Dynamic Modelling of the HPS2 CSP molten salt trough test facility R Temlett ... drying for South African sugar mills W Krog . 16h35 - 16h55 Solar thermal treatment of manganese ore fines L ...

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  • The Development of Indigenous Marula (Sclerocarya

    2018-5-8 · predicting the drying behaviour of the fruit leathers during drying were assessed. The textural, colour and consumer sensory attributes of the dried fruit leathers were also evaluated. The moisture loss and drying behaviour of the marula fruit leathers were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected by the drying temperature and added sugar content.

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  • Post-Graduate Research Opportunities

    2013-9-12 · research we use a modular modelling platform with stochastic simulation capabilities. The research project will apply the model at all the sugar mills in South Africa and two mills in other countries in southern Africa. This project is seeking high calibre MSc and PhD students

    Get Price
  • Design and selection of separation processes

    2020-2-18 · estimation, modelling, Balas VTT-R-06143-15 Summary Product separation and purification is costly but crucial step in chemical production concepts. Lots of information is needed in designing these systems, this is not however always available for first conceptual design. The main focus in this project was on developing

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  • Detecting the Early Stage of Phaeosphaeria Leaf Spot ...

    2016-8-20 · human diets in sub-Saharan Africa and is a staple diet for majority of the African population (Kagoda et al. 2010). In some sub-Saharan African countries, maize is considered a major feed for livestock [1, 2]. In South Africa, maize is the second most popular crop after sugar cane and accounts for over 50% production within the Southern African ...

    Get Price
  • A model of energy management analysis, case study

    2018-3-19 · This study presents a case study of energy management in a sugar factory in Turkey. The main idea of the study is to analyse energy consumption, the quantity of material production, and figure out a suitable energy efficiency for the case study of a sugar factory subsequently. Firstly, a material production and energy consumption audit were performed for the sugar factory.

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  • Sugar Buttons — Katy Sue Designs

    The Sugar Buttons moulds are designed by Kathryn Sturrock, moulded and manufactured exclusively by Katy Sue. Kathryn has produced her own unique range of Sugar Buttons characters for 20 years, hand modelling her creations from polymer clay her work is always in high demand.. Kathryn has taught her unique modelling style to students up and down the country as well as regularly appearing on UK ...

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  • Leaf and Panicle Separator for Sweet Sorghum |

    2018-1-5 · High-biomass sweet sorghum is considered a promising energy crop suitable for the production of energy, first- and second-generation biofuels and biobased chemicals. Processing in a typical sugar cane mill or dedicated sorghum mill is challenged by the presence of trash (leaves and panicles). The separation of leaves and panicles could generate additional value streams, and the …

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  • Modelling — Katy Sue Designs

    Orange - Hearty Air Drying Modelling Clay 50g Katy Sue Designs Content: 50g (1.75 oz), width: 14cm (5.5'), height: 7.5cm (3') Can be mixed with other hearty clays to create an infinite variety of colours.

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  • Associate Professor Tony Howes - School of Chemical ...

    2021-6-17 · Effect of addition of maltodextrin on drying kinetics and stickiness of sugar and acid-rich foods during convective drying: experiments and modelling. Journal of Food Engineering, 62 (1), 53-68. doi: 10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00171-7

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  • Doctoral Degrees (Process Engineering)

    Modelling and sustainability analysis of biorefineries using sugarcane lignocellulose to produce polyethylene, sorbitol, glucaric acid and levulinic acid at existing South African sugar mills Kapanji, Kutemba Kaina ( Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University , 2021-03 )

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  • Division of Structural Engineering and Civil Engineering ...

    2020-5-14 · fully explored in South Africa. SCBA is obtainable from the co-generation boilers fed with sugarcane bagasse of the sugar industry. This process introduces unsuitable contaminations such as carbon, crystalline quartz and cristobalite. The first step towards realising the goal is to experimentally evaluate the hydration

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  • model of flow in a sugar diffuser | IMA Journal of

    Sugar refineries take cane from plantations and extract the sugar which can then be used to produce a number of different products. However, our concern here is just one step in the procedure; that in which the sugar is leached from the cane. This takes place in a long mechanical structure called a diffuser.

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  • Outcomes - Wits University

    2021-6-24 · TG Myers and JPF Charpin. 'Modelling the temperature, maturity and moisture content in a drying concrete block.' Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies Journal, 1 (2008), 24-48; N Fowkes, J A T de Freitas and T R Stacey. 'Crack repair using an elastic filler'. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 56 (2008), 2749 - 2758. DP Mason and H ...

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  • Research Library - efwe.ukzn.ac.za

    title type author date size tags; z xelelo application of the water-land-food (wlf) nexus as a resources management tool for water, land and food securities in kwazulu-natal, south africa .pdf: z xelelo: 2021-05-21 895.57 kb: download: k mugodo the effects of varieties and drying methods on sweet potato quality and modelling heat and mass transfer using computational fluid dynamics

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  • Joshua Nel - Junior Chemical Engineer - Propeller

    Malalane, South Africa Was fortunate enough to be part of the RCL FOODS bursary program. I gained a great deal of experience from my time spent working at at various parts of the Sugar and Milling division, both from my mentor in the program and over the course of five years worth of vacation work.

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  • All About South Africa

    South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa: ubuntu (the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity); and Gandhi's notion of 'passive resistance' (Satyagraha), developed while he lived in South Africa.The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'ï½tat, and regular elections have been held for almost a century; however, the vast majority ...

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  • Frontiers | Testing the Tropical Trigger Hypothesis of ...

    2021-5-13 · Introduction. Global climate change in the 21st century is the largest challenge humanity has faced and is already resulting in extreme weather, reduced food security, and threats to biodiversity (Ripple et al., 2017).In spite of this urgency, our ability to make reliable predictions for the future is still hampered by our limited understanding of the climate system.

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  • Why does my sugarpaste crack when I'm covering

    2009-2-27 · This is really helpful as I’m a new and complete novice at sugar paste decoration. I, however, have the reverse problem of the paste being too soft and sticky (which you also give a remedy for) as I live in South Africa and the hot weather conditions (over 40 degrees today!) make it …

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  • Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability -

    Recent studies of ship sections and altimetry, however, support the existence of a narrow zonal countercurrent across the subtropics from 22 to 26°S, the South Indian Countercurrent (SICC [Siedler et al., 2006; Palastanga et al., 2007]), which is somewhat at odds with the zonally slanted absolute surface topography of Figure 5a.

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